Multiple sclerosis is an immunological disorder, which causes inflammation of brain, more common in females than males. It is the disseminated disease of central nervous system in which there is a loss of communication between the organs. The insulating covers of nerve cells called as myelin sheath, which send electrical signals in brain and spinal cord, are deteriorated. The cause for multiple sclerosis is not yet known but abnormal response by immune system damages the myelin sheath. The other causes for MS are immunological, environmental, genetic and infectious. The gene associated with MS is HLA-DRB1 which plays an important role in immune recognition. It is generally considered to be an auto-immune disease, and other factors that may be responsible are genetics or childhood infection.
The Four Courses of MS are:
- Relapsing-Remitting MS: People with this type of MS have defined attacks like relapses and flare-ups and there is no disease progression during this interval.
- Primary-progressive MS: This type of MS shows worsening of neurological function with no remissions and relapses.
- Secondary-progressive MS: At this stage disease worsens more steadily with or without occasional; flare-ups, relapses-remissions.
- Progressive-relapsing MS: At this stage MS patients experience worsening of neurological function in long way without any further remissions and no recovery.
Signs and Symptoms:
- Blurred vision
- Tingling and numbness
- Pain and muscle spasm
- Fatigue, weakness and dizziness
- Hearing loss
- Slurred speech
- Memory loss
- Breathing problem
The signs and symptoms mentioned above are not exactly the same for all the patients suffering from MS.
Diagnosis of MS is based on proper medical history, neurological examination, MRI, spinal taps, lumbar punctures, asking right questions to the patients. The most commonly used MS drugs are teriflunomide, interferon, Betaseron, Copaxone, Gilenya and Novantrone.
Stem cells are renewing cells that have ability to differentiate in new cells. Stem cell therapy helps in increasing the blood circulation, myelin regeneration, mitochondrial energy production and dietary, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant factors. Stem cells are classified as Adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells, which are further classified according to the way they are derived and sources tissues like, Mesenchymal stem cells(MSC’s), Hematopoietic stem cells(HSC’s) and induced pluripotent stem cells(iPS)cells are the major types of stem cells.
Autologous stem cells are derived from patient’s own body and can be obtained from bone marrow, adipose tissue and Peripheral blood. We use Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, which are self renewing cells derived from adult tissues that can from a number of cells or tissues that are usually restricted to a particular germ layer.Mesenchymal stem cell has immune regulatory properties that help regeneration of myelin sheath of affected neurons.
The major advantage of using MSC’s is the ease of harvest and lack of immunoreactivity since they are derived from autologous sources.
These are then processed in tissue culture lab to isolate stem cells which are then used for the therapeutic purposes and are then given epidurally, intrathecally, intradiscally or intravenously depending on the type of disease.
Post stem cell treatment includes team of members that consists of nurse, a psychiatrist, physical therapist, and nutritionist, and dietitian, urologist followed by yoga, exercise, and acupuncture.