Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is a kind of chronic progressive nonreversible damage to the renal parenchyma with a variety of causes. The main symptoms are uremic toxins retention, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, renal anemia and disturbance with calcium and phosphate metabolism, etc.
At present, the basic therapy is dialysis which just regulates blood volume, small solutes & toxins clearance & does not do reclamation of metabolic subtracts, glutathione synthesis, free radical scavenging enzymes, gluconeogenesis, ammonianeogenesis, peptide & growth hormone catabolism, production of multiple cytokines; important in inflammation & immunity as well as transplants will have various kinds of complications, donor shortage, and great side effect of immunosuppressive agent.
It is found that stem cells have very strong multiplication capacity and differentiation proficiency along with paracrine effect & neo-angiogenesis demonstrate a great application prospect on repairing kidney disease damage.
Mesenchymal cells have very strong plasticity, they can transdifferentiate into different kinds of tissue cells, and in the restoration of renal tissue injuries, have shown good prospects for their application. The mesenchymal cells can transdifferentiate into renal cells and play an important role in the self restoration and regeneration of nephrons, post renal disease.
MSCs improve histological and functional outcomes in various CRF model systems. In addition, MSCs can reprogram kidney cell by fusion and differentiation, and modulate neo-kidney transplantation in CRF.
Stem cell from bone marrow has the potential of multi-differentiation. Recent years, the researches showed that, bone marrow stem cell has capacity of differentiation into renal parenchymal cell, and can differentiate into various renal cells, such as mesangial cell J, epithelial cell, sertoli cell and endothelial cell, etc. which can selectively repair part of glomerular tubules in the outer medulla, recover renal tubule structure and function. So, it proved that bone marrow stem cell has characteristics of differentiation to renal tissue and vessels, and can help repair and regenerate damaged kidney, so as to solve glomerular damage, glomerular tubule damage, and Chronic Renal Failure.