How stem cell works?

Stem-cell therapy is an intervention strategy that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury. The ability of stem cells to self-renew and give rise to subsequent generations with variable degrees of differentiation capacities, offers significant potential for generation of tissues that can potentially replace diseased and damaged areas in the body, with minimal risk of rejection and side effects.

 

Nature of Stem Cells

  • Stem Cells have the potential to treat a number of ailments, mainly due to their extremely flexible nature.
  • They can divide and renew themselves easily to form the desired tissue or cell.
  • They have the potential to migrate to the damaged or injured area of infection, initiate engraftment with the required tissues and restore the impaired organ.
  • This Stem Cell working fundamentals or function are vital for the repair and restoration of the injured part of the body.
  • They can divide and renew themselves at will and can thus replicate and proliferate to form the desired tissue.
  • They are generally unspecialized but can give rise to specialized cells when subjected to the ambient conditions viz. suitable internal or external environment to which they are subjected.
  • Plasticity function i.e. ability of stem cells from one tissue to generate into cell types of completely different tissues.
  • Homing function i.e. the ability of the stem cells to be attracted to site of injury.
  • Engraftment function i.e. the ability to unite with the new tissue; so the regenerating tissue seamlessly amalgamates with the parent tissue. 

Benefits of stem cell

  •  Stem cells are non-toxic and devoid of side effects compared to its toxic drug

Counterparts.

  • The use of stem cells for therapeutic purposes can ensure lower treatment costs and 

promote longer lives

Stem cell therapy has actually been used for decades – in the form of bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells in the transplanted bone marrow produce a permanent supply of new blood cells for the recipient.

Stem cells have great potential for treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, where the body’s defences turn on its own cells. One promising approach is to eliminate a patient’s immune cells, ridding the body of self-reactive cells, and to replace them with hematopoietic stem cells grown in culture.

Stem Cell Therapy for AVN, Testimonial of Canada Based Patient

Avascular necrosis also known as osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, and ischemic bone necrosis. It is a disease resulting from the temporary or permanent loss of the blood supply to the bones. Without blood, the bone tissue dies and causes the bone to collapse.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adult bone marrow are multipotent that can differentiate into fibroblastic, osteogenic, myogenic, adipogenic and reticular cells providing a potential therapy for bone repair.
Stem cell transplantation into the core decompression site replaces dead area by the differentiation process of stem cells into the bone cells as well as improves intramedullary vascularity. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes, subjective pain, and functional status all improved.

Stem cells transplantation technique has high potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for ED

Arnhem, 11 March 2013 – Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells cultivated on the surface of nanofibrous meshes could be a novel therapeutic strategy against post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction (ED), conclude the authors of a study which is to be presented at the 28th Annual EAU Congress later this week.

The study was conducted by a group of Korean scientists and will be awarded 3rd prize for best abstract in non-oncology research on the opening day of the congress.

During their investigation, the group aimed to examine the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells cultivated on the surface of nanofibrous meshes (nano-hMSCs) into neuron-like cells and repair of erectile dysfunction using their transplantation around the injured cavernous nerve (CN) of rats.

“The objectives of the study reflect a very pertinent need in today’s urology practice,” said the lead author of the investigation Prof. Y.S. Song of Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine in South Korea. “Post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction results from injury to the cavernous nerve that provides the autonomic input to erectile tissue. It is a common complication after radical prostatectomy which decreases the patient’s quality of life”.

“Although advances in equipment and surgical techniques reduce this complication, patients still experience erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy,” he explained.

Treatment of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors shows insufficient effectiveness in the treatment of post-prostatectomy ED and it is believed that the transplantation of stem cells cultivated on the surface of nanofibrous meshes can promote cavernous neuronal regeneration and repair erectile dysfunction.

In the course of the study, the synthesised polymer was electrospun in a rotating drum to prepare nanofibrous meshes and hMSCs were prepared and confirmed. Eight week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 each, including sham operation (group 1), CN injury (group 2), hMSCs treatment after CN injury (group 3) and nano-hMSCs treatment after CN injury (group 4). Immediately after the CN injury in group 4, nano-hMSCs encircled the injured CN. Erectile response was assessed by CN stimulation at 2, 4 weeks. Thereafter, penile tissue samples were harvested and examined using morphological analysis and immuno-histochemical stain against nerves (nestin, tubulin βIII and map2), endothelium (CD31,vWF) and smooth muscle (smooth muscle actin).

The results of the study revealed that at 2, 4 weeks, transplantation of nano-hMSCs increased the expression levels of cavernous neuronal, endothelial and smooth muscle makers more than hMSCs alone.

Additionally, nano-hMSCs increased the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells more than hMSCs alone. At 2, 4 weeks, the mean percent collagen area of caversnosum increased following CN injury and recovered after transplantation of nano-hMSCs more than hMSCs alone.

At 2, 4 weeks, the group with CN injury had significantly lower erectile function than the group without CN injury (p<0.05). The group transplanted with hMSCs showed higher erectile function than the sham operation group (p<0.05), whereas the group transplanted with nano-hMSCs showed higher erectile function than the group with hMSCs alone (p<0.05).

The authors of the study concluded that nano-hMSCs differentiated into neuron-like cells and their transplantation repair erectile dysfunction in the rats with CN injury. These findings have high potential for the development of follow-up research projects.

“The outcomes of the current study could be a starting point for investigating clinical application of autologous adipocyte derived mesenchymal stem cells cultivated on the nonofiber to the injured caverneous nerve after radical prostatectomy,” said Prof. Song.

“This is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transplantated human mesenchymal stem cells cultivated on the surface of nanofibrous meshes against post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction in patients with cavernous nerve injury.”

Source of this news : http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-03/eaou-sct031113.php

Post Chemotherapy Stem Cells Treatment For Cancer

The high dose chemotherapy have the adverse effects on the bone marrow causing myelosupression. Usually this is followed by the blood cell recovery through the haematopoietic progenitor cells residing in the bone marrow by the complex interactions between the progenitor cells and the marrow microenvironment under the influence of various stimulatory and inhibitory factors. However, time for haematopoietic recovery is proportional to the doses and number of cycles of chemotherapy. It has been shown that chemotherapy can induce inhibitory factors such as Tumour Growth Factor (TGF)-?, Interferon(IFN)-? – IFN-?, Tumour Necrosis Factor(TNF)-? and Interleukin(IL)-4 with cytokines that causes myelosupression. HSCs are the most commonly used and they are the stem cells of choice for the haematopoietic cell transplantation following high dose chemotherapy to restore bone marrow and immune system to pre-chemotherapy levels

cancer stem cells

Some of the chemotherapeutic agents, especially alkaylating agents, should be avoided as they are reported to adversely affect stem cell yield and haemotopoietic recovery. The post-transplant period thrombocytopenia and neutropenia may be reduced by re-infusion of ex vivo expanded megacaryocyte progenitors and re-infusion of ex vivo expanded peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) respectively. Double stem cell transplantation has been documented to improve overall survival compared to single stem cell transplantation. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) helps in proliferation and differentiation of haematopoietic progenitor cells. G-CSF has also been reported to mobilise autologous peripheral blood stem cells and to preserve and increase the length of telomerase.

Apart from long lasting replicative property of stem cells, stem cells from haemopoietic tissues seem to have ‘extraordinary’ abilities to generate or switch between haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic lineages, exhibiting an unexpected degree of developmental or differentiation potential. On theoretical grounds, this allows HSC to be used to regenerate any non-haematopoietic tissue. cancer stem cells

In a typical stem cell transplant very high doses of chemo are used, often along with radiation therapy, to try to destroy all of the cancer. This treatment also kills the hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Without these stem cells, blood cell production would cease. Soon after treatment, stem cells are given to replace those that were destroyed. These stem cells are given into a vein, much like a blood transfusion. Over time they settle in the bone marrow and begin to grow and make healthy blood cells. This process is called engraftment.

One advantage of autologous stem cell transplant is that you are getting your own cells back. This means there is no risk that your immune system will reject the transplant or that the transplanted cells will attack or reject your body.

High-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered to provide patients with a better chance for longer survival than other therapies. post chemotherapy treatmennt

Many factors must be considered to determine whether a patient is a candidate for high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant. These include:

 

  • The type of myeloma.
  • The stage of disease and how aggressive it is.
  • How the cancer responded to prior treatment.
  • Age and general physical condition.

Case Study for Muscular Dystrauphy

 Study Conducted At:- StemRx Bio Science Solutions Mumbai

A 12 years old male child presented with complaints of generalized pain, loss of appetite, progressive weakness in upper & lower extremities along with neck muscles, Contractures in major joints of extremities. Due to his disease patient was unable to site or move his neck. He was totally dependent on his family, even for change of neck position in bed.

Diagnosed as Emery Drefiuss Muscular Dystrophy

He was treated with Intra Muscular and IV cellular medicine transplants along with Physiotherapy and Chine’s Traditional Medicine Acupuncture Therapy. The Diet and life style modification is advised. The patient has shown improvement, now patient can site for more than half an hour, can move his extremities, neck holding and movement has regained, he can twist his body and his appetite is increased as well alertness.

With these promising changes in his health, we are expecting him to join his school and independency in day to day activates in next 6 months. Muscular Dystrophy treatment India

Stem Cell Treatment: Promise for Arthritis Cure

Arthritis involves mechanical abnormalities at the place of bone joints in human body. There is no specific joint in human body where Arthritis can take place, however in most of these cases it is found that osteoarthritis takes place at knee joint. Mainly people with forty plus age have more chances to get this disease. Main reasons for this disease are like excess mechanical movements like walking, running, athletic exercises and work outs. There are treatments available for this disease like joint replacement, acupuncture and other drug medications with their own limitations. However, most promising, natural and long lasting treatment for this disease is stem cell treatment.    

Stem cell treatments belong to new and non conventional natural medication treatment type. However, three decades of research on stem cell development and processing have started showing guaranteed results in kind of orthopaedic diseases.  Along with osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis many other types of arthritis can be treated with this treatment. Unlike traditional treatments on arthritis stem cell treatment is not consist of any surgery. The theoretical justification for the approach to adult stem cell therapy is based on solid science. All human life begins with an ovum and a sperm. Cells then arise in the fertilized ovum, which after a few days in the womb develop into embryonic stem cells. These cells are much unspecialized and possess the ability to develop into all of the 220 human cell types.

Diagnosis for arthritis is made by clinical examination from an appropriate health professional, and may be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests, depending on the type of suspected arthritis. All arthritides potentially feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness; in the early stages, patients often have no symptoms after a morning shower. Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tends to be worse after exercise. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb.

Mesenchymal stem cellsImage, or MSCs, are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types,including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and adipocytes (fat cells). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult autologous stem cells found in the bone marrow. However, Mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, peripheral blood, fallopian tube, and fatal liver and lung. Mesenchymal stem cells are a distinct entity to the Mesenchymal, embryonic connective tissue which is derived from the mesoderm and differentiates to form hematopoietic stem cells. Because of their multi-potent capabilities, Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineages have been used successfully in animal models to regenerate articular cartilage and in human models to regenerate bone.

There are very few institutes and hospitals that provide stem cell treatment for arthritis. However, you can visit and consult stem cell transplant experts in Mumbai. Some of these institutes also provides virtual clinic facility for first consultation.